Tag Archives: cold process soap

Recipe creation – DOE method

Many people have asked, “Hey, how do you guys come up with your soap recipes?”

No matter how easy, how tempting it is to just grab recipes off the internet; we have decided right in the beginning that we will never copy other people’s hard work.

Instead, we have always challenged ourselves to build the recipe from scratch.

So how do we do it?

There are a number of ways that we can formulate recipes from scratch.

  1. Trial and error – involves lots of time and raw materials (both of which, we prefer to spend on either theoretical research or actually making production soaps)
  2. Design of Experiments (DOE) – modeling based simulations (Allows us to model and simulated various recipe formulations without wasting materials)

And our favorite go to method is DOE.

So, what exactly is Design of Experiment?

In short, it is simply a modeling tool, which, when users define certain factors, it automatically generates various scenarios, and then data collection can commence, and a final analysis is then applied to understand the relationship of each factor with respect to end result.

How it works is really simple. It all starts with a vision.

With this vision in mind, we then ask a question that, if answered, will lead us down the path as to how we can achieve our vision.

Then we identify what could potentially affect answers to our question. These are known as factors.

Then we look at what we could measure if we vary the factors so that it will lead us back to the vision we have. These are known as responses.

Ours was pretty simple:

  • Vision: We want to create a bar that is: Super moisturizing, lathers well, and physically hard. In that order.
  • Questions: With the bunch of different oils/fats that we have in our inventory, what, and how, are they contributing to our desired vision. And also, what is the optimum ratio between each oils/fat that allows us to achieve our vision above?
  • Factors: Different oils/fats we have in our inventory, and the typical ratio they are used in soap recipes.
  • Responses: Hardness index, conditioning index, cleansing index, bubbly index and creaminess index.

With those in mind, here’s how we do a DOE.

We have a go to software – JMP, which is a beast when powering through modeling like these. If you have JMP installed, you may also be able to simulate your own data set using your own inventory.

  • Link to trial version of JMP (30 days free, and it will be sufficient to run a full blown analysis)
  • Link to how to use JMP.



These are the oils in our current inventory.

  • Min and max% is derived from research via multiple books and online knowledge.
  • Here’s one document from Nature Garden Candles that we thought summarized everything pretty well20140313-1

This is how the factors are being represented in JMP. As each oil/fat represents a % of a recipe, the Role is set to “Mixture” and the max. and min. can be anything between 0 to 1 (0% to 100%).



Responses are the hard part. It was relatively easy to define factors, but how could we effectively and consistently measure an output?

We thought long and hard. Human testing can be inconsistent and contribute way too many variability due to factors like different skin type, personal preference etc.

So, to ensure consistent measurement, we turned to a nifty little soap app called Soap Calc. Based on the oils/fats, it will be able to compute each response index based on the amount of each type of fatty acids present in each oil/fat. And results will be consistent.

To return the optimum ratio per recipe, we have to define what we want to see, and that’s where our vision comes in.

Vision: We want to create a bar that is: Super moisturizing, lathers well, and physically hard. In that order. Therefore:

  1. Hardness [Maximize]
  2. Cleansing [No special requirements, minimum is to meet target]
  3. Conditioning [Maximize]
  4. Creaminess [Meet target]
  5. Bubbly [Maximize]

Of course, the final result does not fully represent a human’s feel of the resulting soap, but it gives us a pretty good idea on formulating a couple of good test recipes.

This shows how the responses are being entered in JMP.



And now the fun part begins.

Once we entered our factors and responses, with the goal of what we want to achieve, JMP automatically spits out a Design Matrix.

This table represents multiple scenarios that JMP wants you to run and to measure the responses.

Because I ran a 12 way factor mix, 78 scenarios are necessary for the program to decouple any linear relationships between each oil/fat.



Based on this matrix, I keyed in the various % of oils/fats as defined by the matrix into the Soap Calc and manually punched in resulting Hardness, cleansing, conditioning, creaminess, bubbly results. And the magical moment is when we hit “analyze”.

This is the final table displayed by JMP.

How to read

  • Y axis – Various responses and its corresponding value with respect to ratio of each factor.
  • X axis – Various factors and its corresponding percentage in a soap recipe.

What we are looking out for is the slope of each line. The slope of each line tells us how much each oils contribute to each response. The steeper the slope, the more impact the ratio of the oil plays for each response.


Based on this chart, there are a couple of relationships that draws our attention immediately:

  1. Mango butter seems to have very little impact to any of our responses. You can tell by the extremely flat slope for all responses. So we have since relegated our 8 pounds of mango butter to other things. Or we may use this as a superfattng agent for hot process soaps. Or use it in bath truffles etc.
  2. Generally the trend across all data set is that – if a oil has a positive slope for conditioning, it will have a negative slope for cleansing, hardness and bubbliness.
  3. Avocado and olive oil, while extremely conditioning has the high adverse impact to hardness and cleansing and lathering properties as compared to any other oils here. Olive more so that avocado. Because our vision is to primarily create a bar of moisturizing soap, avocado and olive oils will definitely need to be in our recipe. To account for the lack of hardness, we are now on the lookout for oils/fats that has a high positive slope for hardness/bubbliness.
  4. Coconut oil has good lathering/hardness properties, but extreme amount adversely affects the moisturizing properties of the soap. But it accounts for hardness more than other oils/fats. So coconut oil is a must in our recipes, the question will be how much.
  5. Also, because our primary analysis is that to bump our moisturizing factors, almost all oils seem to have an adverse impact towards bubbly (lather). The only oil that bumps up lather (bubbly) which having a relatively flat slope for conditioning is castor oil. So our final recipe was tweaked to include a fair bit more of castor oil than normal recommended amounts.

The analysis goes on and on… but you guys get the general idea.

Notice the last row “Desirability”? That is the direct result of us telling JMP based on what we want to maximize.

Ours was to maximize conditioning, hardness, and bubbly. The higher the desirability, more desirable the outcome is with respect to our vision. So playing around with the ratios, and observing how our desirability index changes with each ratio, we can effectively narrow down our recipes to a few combinations.


Now that we have a couple of recipes which theoretically supports our vision, the very next, and final step is to actually create test bars, and test it on actual humans. Ultimately, no matter how wonderful and perfect a recipe seems to be on paper, a human has to be the final judge.

To that, we also had a relatively scientific way of minimizing variability. And that is to test one recipe on each hand simultaneously, and then do a direct comparison.

Example: We have four test bars. Bar A, B, C and D.

  • I will use Bar A on my left hand, and then Bar B on my right hand. Do not use lotion after test is complete. Compare one hour later and decide which is better.
  • Say Bar B is better. The next day, I will use Bar B on my left, and Bar C on my right, compare an hour later and determine the better bar.
  • Say Bar B is still better, the next day, I will use Bar B on my left hand, and then Bar D on my right.
  • Now, if I feel Bar D is better than Bar B, then because Bar B is better than Bar A and C, it stands to reason that Bar D is also better than Bar A and C.
  • By process of direct comparison and elimination, we will be able to select the best recipe that passed the test of human selection.
  • Repeat this experiment with multiple people, and then get the final answer.

Note: We always wait at least a day between each experiment so as not to strip our natural oils by repeatedly soaping our hands.

Using the above methodology, we have tested at least 12 recipes, and we have narrowed down to two particular recipes:

  1. Formulated for dry skin – moisturizing factor is king, so we forsake lather and harness in favor of conditioning. It is super moisturizing, but it doesn’t lather as well. It is also slightly soft. But it’s great for dry skin. I can personally vouch for this.
  2. Formulated for oily skin – This soap has more lather, but the conditioning factor is still maintained at > 53 (On the high side of the range). To negate the slightly drying factor of this recipe, all of these are made with milk and so far, it has shown great success with oilier skin.

And in preparation for humid summer, we have formulated a third recipe that we are extremely pleased with. That recipe is being used in production batch right now, just in time for summer.

And there you have it, how The Soap Engineers formulate, develop and test our soap recipes.

I guess we really are nerds after all 🙂







Brooke’s Top Ten Soaping Tips

It’s been awhile since we updated our blog.

Reason for that? There are a lot going on, but a lot of things were waiting on others. Like waiting for soaps to cure etc. And I really wouldn’t like to bore you guy silly with tales of how soda ash builds up on some of our soaps.

So what really happened to us these couple of weeks?

  1. We’ve decided on our logo. It’s nothing fancy, but we love it. And it’s so us.
  2. We roped in Andrew Goad who’s going to be our financial and web guy leaving us free to focus on R&D and production.
  3. As of 7th Feb 2014, we are officially registered as The Soap Engineers LLC. Milestone reached! High five!
  4. We have been invited to Spring Fling Vendor Blendor Vendor party on March 23rd. This is super exciting for us. Bless Sheri for making it happen.
  5. In preparation, we made 10 production batches. (By we, I really mean Brooke). So while I was away on a 3 weeks vacation back home to sunny Singapore, Brooke was making batches and batches of soap. And that’s why having a talented partner is sweet! :p

There are drastic differences between making test batches vs making experimental batches. And like everything we do in life, every time we (Brooke, really) made a soap, we end up with a  *facepalm* “what did I just do” moment .

And if you follow us on Twitter, you would see random tweets from Brooke with hashtag #tipoftheday

So here’s a compilation of the top ten #tipoftheday.

 Brooke’s Top Ten Tip of the Day:

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Tip #1: Some FO/EO speeds trace and some causes soap to seize. Then you will cry. And kick yourself for ruining the day’s work. But don’t fret, if you know about this property in advance, you may still be able to use this FO/EO in your creation by

  • Adding more water to the mixture instead of the recommended amount. This increases cure time, but you will avoid soap on a stick situation.
  • Pre-mixing FO/EO with base oils at a 1:4 ratio. Set aside.
  • Blend your lye+oil mixture to a really thin watery trace. Nothing more.
  • Bring down temperature of lye+oil mixture to 50-60 deg F  (if your recipe contains solid butters, they do solidify at this temperature, you got to play around with the ideal temperature)
  • Add FO/EO/Oil mixture in.
  • Use a spoon to mix in FO/EO instead of using hand blender to control speed of trace.
  • And if all fails. Try adding more water to your next batch. Or ditch that FO/EO. Breakups are part and parcels of life.
  • Question: “How do I know this information in advance?” We’ve chanced upon a mighty google document powered by fellow soapers like you and us. It’s a wealth of information. All you have to do is to update it with what you are using, and how it’s treating you and we’ll be able to share the info as well. Whoever the creator is – Hugs and kisses!

Tip #2: Lining your soap mold may take 5 mins, but it will save you a lot of hassle in the long run, especially when making soft, sticky milk soaps. Here’s two slightly different, but effective methods from BrambleBerry and Angle Craft Soap on how to line a mold.

Tip #3: Soap stuck in mold? It simply won’t come out? Stick it in the freezer for 30 mins and then place it in a warm water bath for a couple of minutes. Your soap should come right out.

Tip #4: Do not be alarmed when your beautiful soap is covered with soda ash. It’s not harmful. But if it really bugs you, then here’s a link from BrambleBerry on how to remove soda ash from your soap. I personally like the handheld steamer method. Fast and effective.

Tip #5: When deciding between if your soap should go through gel phase or not, what we’ve found is that soaps that did not gel typically needs to be cured a couple of weeks longer.

Tip #6: Be extremely cautious when adding exfoliants to your soap. Sure, oatmeal feels velvety soft between your fingers. But wait till you are soaping over sensitive parts of your body. It hurts. Trust me. And Brooke. And Andrew.

Tip #7: Watch out when using honey in your CP soap and trying to force it to go through gel phase. If overheated in an oven, it caramelizes and you are left with a bar of soap that oozes honey. But it sure smells good.

Tip #8: If adding glycerin to soap, adding it to the oil mixture initially works better than adding at trace. If you add glycerin at trace, you would end up with glycerin sweat beads in your bar. We learned this the hard way too.

Tip #9: IMPORTANT! ALWAYS use distilled water when making soap. If you have no distilled water, you can get away with using filtered water from your fridge. But never ever, ever, EVER, use tap water. It just turns your soap lumpy and cuddly looking because of reactions with all sorts of minerals existing in tap water. Imagine the texture of bleu cheese. Or cottage cheese. Or cauliflower.  Urgh…

And my personal favorite of all of her tips:

Tip #10: At the end of the day, even if your soap doesn’t turn out the way you envisioned it to be (color, pattern, texture etc). Don’t stress. Someone will love your soap!

And it’s true. I truly love all of hers from the bottom of my heart! Even the one that looks like bleu cheese 😀

Have a great day soaping!

The Waiting Game

It has been two weeks since Puja, Brooke and I made our first bar of soap together.

Making the first bar together gives us confidence that soap making is not scary. The process, while complicated, and somewhat dangerous, can be strangely satisfying and extremely exciting. NaOH, while super duper caustic, can also be a wonderful, magical friend that transforms boring pantry items into bars and bars of creamy, luxurious soap.

We had so much fun that we met one day after work, looked at each other, and unanimously decide that yes, we would like to take this to the next level and we’ll like to make soap for the rest of our life! 🙂

The rest of the week is a whirlwind of activities – we each purchased a set of dedicated soap making equipment and created a little “soaping lab” in our house. Brooke got a cabinet dedicated to soap making stuff. I moved my items around and set up a “This is for soap, prepare food here at your own risk” kitchen counter zone and Puja is seriously contemplating if she should convert her garage into a soap lab and storage area.

We also made, for the first time, a bulk purchase of raw materials. Yes, bulk purchase can seem like a big commitment. There’s like 8 pounds of everything! But, there are some hobbies worth investing in. We figured that if it made our skins glow, and our kitchens smell nice, give us something to focus on and works as an excuse to drink wine and chill while doing something we really enjoyed, then yes, it is a great investment.

Our mission for the next couple of months (or however long it takes us to perfect it) is to create at one recipe for each type of soap:

  • Old school super sudsy, but still not too drying type of soap
  • Ultra moisturizing, hopefully no need to slather on lotion after shower type of soap
  • Gentle facial soap that conditions without stripping off all moisture soap.

With this driving force, we really looked forward to after work every night. Since the first bar of soap, we made 8 more soaps. Each recipe is created by us stemming from the need to study different properties of different oil ratio. There is a long story behind each bar of soap, some good, some sob, and some downright horrifying. But with each soap creation, we gained new experience and insights, and we formulated new strategies to handle unexpected curveballs. And this means that each soap here warrants a post of its own. But, like any proud parents, we couldn’t resist showing of pictures of our creations. Please bear with our excitement. This was pretty exciting for us.

  • Lavender Castile Soap20131209 - 2
  •  Rose Bastile Soap

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  • Dreamy Coconut Cocoa Butter Soap 20131209 - 6 
  • Little Miss Flora Shea Butter Milk Soap20131209 - 1
  • Oatmeal Honey Almond Milk Soap20131209 - 3
  • Grapefruit Pear Soap20131209 - 4
  • Lavender Oatmeal Milk Soap20131209 - 5
  • Lemon Poppy Soap20131209 - 8

Though pretty, until the soaps are completely cured, we won’t be able to fully characterize its properties. All we can do now is to wait, pray for the best, research more, systematically design new recipes, execute it. Then it’s back to more waiting.

So, with each bar of new soap made, the waiting game commence.

But ready or not, every night, before I sleep, I find myself wandering into the kitchen, picking up pieces of soap, touching and smelling it and mentally making notes of what could be done differently for the next batch. And I bet you Puja and Brooke does that too.